The vacuum distillation column is a new application of pressure vessels. It is an alternative to conventional distillation columns, in which a vacuum is applied at the heated zone to remove boiling heat from the sample. The vacuum separates the boiling mixture from the condensed mixture to recover the desired compound. The basic principle of chemical separation by vacuum distillation is based on the difference in boiling points among liquids in a multicomponent mixture. This guide explores these and other benefits provided by vacuum distillation columns.
What is Vacuum Distillation?
Vacuum distillation is a technique to separate a mixture of components in liquid form. The mixture is placed in a column, and the pressure on top of the column is reduced until it reaches a vacuum, which pulls everything in the column towards the centre.
How does Vacuum Distillation Column Work?
The vacuum distillation column consists of two main parts: the receiver and the condenser. The receiver is where the vaporised material passes through it and is condensed in another vessel for later recovery and reuse. The condenser contains a cooling system for the receiver, which removes heat from the receiver so that it does not become too hot when subjected to high pressures.
The vacuum distillation column consists of a series of chambers connected by tube bundles. The chambers are packed with columns and rows of packing materials, which remove vapour from liquid and condense it into a liquid stream.
The vapour leaves this stream as liquid, collected into a receiver containing more packing materials. These packing materials absorb any remaining vapours from the vapour phase by adsorption or absorption.
An important consideration when designing and constructing a vacuum distillation column is its operating pressure (that is, its minimum pressure). Usually, this pressure will range from 0-300 atmospheres (atm), although some applications may require higher pressures than others. Since liquids are less dense than gases, liquid vaporisations will occur at lower temperatures. For more information visit classroom tables.
How to Set Up a Vacuum Distillation Column
Setting up a vacuum distillation column is no different from setting up any other kind of column. The main difference is that you will have to use a pump instead of a condenser.
The only difference is that you must install a vacuum in the reactor. It can be done by equipment fabricators using an aspirator or vacuum pump.
The basic principle of a vacuum distillation column is the same as any other column: it contains vessels holding liquids or gases at different pressures. The difference is that no open pathways exist for air to pass through the column. Instead, some valves allow gases to flow between these vessels, but not liquids. It makes it possible for vapour to condense into liquid droplets without allowing any moisture or other impurities into the system.
Advantages of Vacuum Distillation Column
The benefits of Vacuum Distillation Column:
- The equipment has high purity and low cost
- Vacuum distillation column is simple, reliable, and easy to operate, and can be operated with little care
- The equipment can easily separate complex compounds in the feed material, such as gaseous hydrocarbons and low molecular weight organic compounds.
- Vacuum distillation column has many functions in the chemical industry: purification of raw materials, separation of various materials by using different types of adsorbents or membranes; desulphurisation; removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater.
For production separation, the use of a vacuum distillation column is widespread. The vacuum distillation column is a plant for separating and purifying hydrocarbon in the oil refining industry. It is widely used in petroleum, chemical, pharmaceutical, and other industries. It mainly shows high efficiency, low consumption, and environmental protection features.